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Is FTTH technology expensive?

In new construction, such as FiberIndy’s network, fiber costs about the same as copper to build, and it costs much less to operate and maintain. Building fiber to the home is expensive only when compared with not building a new network – that is, with making minor tweaks to an existing copper network. The problem is that these less-expensive solutions don’t meet users’ needs. In the last few years, the flood of video content has outrun the ability of older copper technologies to handle bandwidth demands. In many parts of the world, providers shut off or slow down service or impose prohibitive fees for customers who exceed monthly bandwidth caps. Customers don’t like these restrictions, and they don’t appreciate being called “bandwidth hogs” for using services they have paid for. In addition, it’s not clear that providers save money by failing to meet users’ needs because limiting bandwidth means limiting revenue potential as well.

With cable and DSL, there’s often a gap between advertised and actual bandwidth. is that true for fiber?

No. Cable, DSL and even wireless networks are usually heavily oversubscribed – that is, providers promise users more than the total amount of available bandwidth because they know all users aren’t going full throttle most of the time. As a result, networks slow down during periods of heavy use, such as when teenagers come home from school. Copper networks are also more subject to speed degradation due to the condition of the wiring. Fiber has enough bandwidth and reliability that providers can guarantee high speeds with little or no oversubscription. If a fiber network is designed properly, users will always get the speeds that are advertised – or better. Data published by the FCC in February 2013 showed that, on average, fiber-to-the-home services delivered 115 percent of their advertised speeds.

Why does it matter how close to the home fiber comes?

With copper cable, bandwidth drops precipitously with distance. The most recent expedient, vectored DSL, allows 50 Mbps downstream signals for as far as 1,800 feet under ideal conditions. It won’t work on very old copper wiring, its upstream bandwidth is limited and it requires expensive electronics. However, it is touted as an interim solution for network builders that cannot afford FTTH. In the next few years, a new technology, G.fast, will become available; under ideal conditions and with vectoring (crosstalk cancellation), G.fast is expected to provide 500 Mbps symmetrical bandwidth up to 300 feet from the node. G.fast may prove to be an excellent solution for retrofitting apartment buildings with fiber to the basement (as long as those buildings have good internal wiring), but it requires bringing fiber very close to customer premises and is still limited in comparison with true fiber to the home.

Isn’t a network with some fiber good enough?

It may be fine to send emails, download songs or share family photos. If you want to log on to the corporate LAN from home and work effectively, or run a home- based business, you’ll need more. And what about uploading a high-def video of your child’s football game, or sitting down to dinner virtually with family members a thousand miles away?

all providers seem to claim they have fiber networks. What’s different about fiber to the home/premise?

Don’t be fooled! It is true that most cable and FTTN (DSL) networks use some fiber. In these networks, the fiber carries the signal close enough to homes so that copper can carry it the rest of the way. However, this approach requires expensive, difficult-to-maintain electronics at the point where fiber meets copper. (These electronic devices use a great deal of power and are quite sensitive to lightning strikes. Even the cost of bringing electric power to them can be huge, depending on where they are located.) The available bandwidth is far less than in an all-fiber network. And most of these halfway approaches do not allow symmetrical bandwidth – cable and DSL systems generally can’t upload information as fast as they can download it.

How long has fiber optic technology been in use?

Fiber optic cable is the foundation of the world’s telecommunications system. It has been used for more than 30 years to carry communications traffic from city to city and from country to country. Almost every country has some fiber optic cable, delivering services reliably and inexpensively. The first time fiber delivered a signal directly to a home (in Hunter’s Creek, Fla.) was more than 25 years ago. Today, more than 200 million homes worldwide have fiber connections available, and more than 100 million homes are connected to fiber.

What exactly makes fiber “future proof”?

The equipment used to send light signals over glass fiber keeps getting better. So equipping an existing fiber network with new electronics and with lasers that pulse light faster, or lasers that use different wavelengths of light, can vastly increase available bandwidth without changing the fiber itself. New electronics are very cheap compared with the original cost of laying the fiber. At the customer end, the system can be designed so that customers themselves can simply pull the old unit out and plug the new one in. Therefore, once fiber has been deployed, network operators can keep increasing bandwidth as needed at very little cost.

What about wireless? i hear 4G wireless can provide 54 Mbps.

That’s the potential bandwidth shared by all users connected to a cellular antenna. Wireless broadband depends on fiber to move information to and from cell towers. Even so, each antenna can support only a finite number of cellular signals. Cellular data traffic grew 200-fold from 2006 to 2012 and will grow another eightfold by 2016. Providers are now severely limiting wireless data, encouraging or forcing customers to use Wi-Fi connections instead of cellular networks for data. Those Wi-Fi connections, in turn, work best when they can quickly offload data to a fiber network. A typical cellular data plan allows 5 gigabytes per month. Use your phone to view video, and you quickly run over the limit.

What’s the difference between upstream and downstream bandwidth, and why is it important?

In the debate about FTTH versus copper-based broadband, people tend to argue in terms of downstream bandwidth because most users need more downstream bandwidth than upstream – especially for bringing video entertainment into the home. But emerging consumer uses such as home video uploads, computer games, distance learning, video communication and telemedicine may require as much upstream bandwidth as downstream. Small businesses, often home-based, may need upstream bandwidth as well – imagine a wedding photographer sending proofs by email to clients. Larger businesses may wish to copy all their working data files for safekeeping to a remote computer center.

Can’t copper carry high bandwidth?

Copper’s capacity is far less than fiber’s. It can support high bandwidth for only a few hundred yards. The longer a signal travels on copper, the lower the bandwidth. Optical fiber is unique in that it can carry high- bandwidth signals over enormous distances. Fiber uses laser light to carry signals. Under some circumstances, a signal can travel 60 kilometers (36 miles) without degrading enough to keep it from being received. The international minimum standard is 20 kilometers (12 miles). Fiber is also far better able to support upstream bandwidth – that is, from a user to the network.

QUESTION 1 Which two commands can be used to verify a 300-206 exam trunk link configuration status on a given cisco switch? (choose two) A. show interfaces interface B. show interfaces trunk C. show interfaces switch port D. show ip interface brief E. show interfaces vlan Correct Answer: BC QUESTION 2 If you are configuring syslog messages specifying `logging trap warning', which log messages will the router send? A. 0-4 B. 0-5 C. 0-6 D. 0-2 E. 0-1 Correct Answer: A QUESTION 3 Which command can you enter to configure an IPV6 floating static route? A. Router(config)# ipv6 route 70-461 exam FE80:0202::/32 serail 0/1 201 B. Router(config)# ipv6 route::/0 serail0/1 C. Router(config)# ipv6 route static resolve default D. Router(config)# ipv6 route FE80:0202::/32 serail 0/1 1 Correct Answer: A QUESTION 4 What is true about Ethernet? (Choose Two.) A. 802.2 Protocol B. 802.3 Protocol C. 10BaseT half duplex D. CSMA/CD Stops transmitting 1z0-803 dumps when congestion occurs E. CSMA/CA Stops transmitting when congestion occurs Correct Answer: BD QUESTION 5 How to configure RIPv2? (Choose Two.) A. Enable RIP B. Connect RIP to WAN interface C. Enable no auto-summary D. Enable authentication Correct Answer: AC QUESTION 6 What is the status of port-channel if LACP is misconfigured? A. Forwarding B. Enabled C. Disabled D. Err disabled Correct Answer: D QUESTION 7 What is true about DTP? (Choose Three.) A. Layer 2 protocol B. Layer 3 protocol C. Proprietary protocol D. enabled by default E. disabled by default Correct Answer: ACD QUESTION 8 How to create a trunk port and allow VLAN 20? (Choose Three.) A. switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q B. switchport mode trunk C. switchport trunk allowed vlan 20 D. switchport trunk native vlan 20 Correct Answer: ABC QUESTION 9 What 8-bit field exists in IP hp0-s41 dumps packet for QoS? A. Tos Field B. DSCP C. IP Precedence D. Cos Correct Answer: A QUESTION 10 What feature uses a random time to re-sent a frame? A. CSMA/CA B. CSMA/CD Correct Answer: B QUESTION 11 210-451 pdf If you configure syslog messages without specifying the logging trap level, which log messages will the router send? A. 0-4 B. 0-5 C. 0-6 D. 0-2 E. 0-1 Correct Answer: C QUESTION 12 If a router has 3 hosts connected in one port and two other hosts connected in another port, how may broadcast domains are present on the router? A. 5 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 Correct Answer: BQUESTION 13 What are three parts of an IPv6 global unicast address? (Choose three.) A. an interface ID that is used to identify the local host on the network B. an interface ID that is used to identify the local network for a particular host C. a subnet ID that is used to identify networks inside of the local enterprise site D. a global routing prefix that is Northwest District | HP hp0-s42 dumps Dumps used to identify the network portion of the address that has been provided by an ISP E. a global routing prefix that is used to identify the portion of the network address provided by a local administrator Correct Answer: ACD QUESTION 14 Which feature facilitate the tagging of a specific VLAN? A. Routing B. Hair pinning C. Encapsulation D. Switching Correct Answer: C QUESTION 15 What does split horizon prevent? A. routing loops, link state B. routing loops, distance vector C. switching loops, STP D. switching loops, VTP Correct Answer: B QUESTION 16 Which value to use in HSRP protocol election process ? A. interface B. virtual IP address C. priority D. router ID Correct Answer: C QUESTION 17 Which of the following is needed 640-916 exam to be enable back the role of active in HSRP? A. preempt B. priority Correct Answer: A QUESTION 18 Which of the following privilege level is the most secured? A. Level 0 B. Level 1 C. Level 15 D. Level 16 Correct Answer: C QUESTION 19 Which IPV6 feature is supported in IPV4 but is not commonly used? A. unicast B. multicast C. anycast D. broadcast Correct Answer: C QUESTION 20 Which range represents the standard access list? A. 99 B. 150 C. 299 D. 2000 Correct Answer: A QUESTION 21 What to do when the router password was forgotten? A. use default password cisco to reset B. access router physically C. use ssl/vpn D. Type confreg 0x2142 at the rommon 1 Correct Answer: D QUESTION 22 Which of the following encrypts the traffic on a leased line? A. telnet B. ssh C. vtp D. vpn E. dmvpn Correct Answer: B QUESTION 23 How do you configure a hostname? A. Router(config)#hostname R1 Correct Answer: A QUESTION 24 Which technology you will choose to connect multiple sites with secure connections? A. Point-to-point B. DMVPN C. vpn D. Correct Answer: B QUESTION 25 What routing protocol use first-hand information? A. link-stateB. distance-vector C. path-vector Correct Answer: A QUESTION 26 Which command you enter on a switch to display the ip address associated with connected devices? A. Show cdp neighbors detail B. Show cdp neighbor C. Show cdp interface D. Show cdp traffic Correct Answer: A QUESTION 27 Which two are advantages of static routing when compared to dynamic routing?(choose two) A. Security increases because only the network administrator may change the routing tables. B. Configuration complexity decreases as network size increases. C. Routing updates are automatically sent to neighbors. D. Route summarization iscompued 2v0-620 pdf automatically by the router. E. Routing traffic load is reduced when used in stub network links F. An efficient algorithm is used to build routing tables,using automatic updates. G. Routing tables adapt automatically to topology changes. Correct Answer: AE QUESTION 28 Which of the following are the valid numbers of standard ACL (choosse two) A. 50 B. 1550 C. 150 D. 1250 E. 2050 Correct Answer: AB QUESTION 29 What does split-horizon do? A. Prevent routing loop in distance vector protocol B. Prevent switching loop in distance vector protocol C. Prevent switching loop in link-state protocol D. Prevent routing loop in link-state protocol Correct Answer: A QUESTION 30 Which statement about vlan operation ex300 pdf on cisco catalyst switches is true? A. when a packet is received from an 802.1Q trunk,the vlan id can be determined from the source MAC address table. B. unkown unicast frames are retransmitted only to the ports that belong to the same vlan C. ports between switches should be configured in access mode so that vlans can span across the ports D. broadcast and multicast frames are retransmitted to ports that are configured on different vlan Correct Answer: B QUESTION 31 Refer to exhibit. Which command can you enter to verify link speed and duplex setting on the interface? A. router# show protocols B. router#show startup-config C. router#show line D. router#show interface gig0/1 Correct Answer: D QUESTION 32 When is the most appropriate time to escalate an issue that you troubleshooting? A. When you lack the proper cas-002 dump IBM Certified Database Administrator https://www.passitdump.com/C2090-311.html to resolve the issue. B. When a more urgent issue that requires your intervention is detected C. When you have gathered all information about an issue D. When you have been unable to resolve the issue after 30 min Correct Answer: C QUESTION 33 Which two authentic methods are compatible with MLPPP on a serial Interface?(choose two) A. PEAP B. CHAP C. TACACS+ D. PAP E. LEAP Correct Answer: BD QUESTION 34 Assuming a subnet mask of, three of the following addresses are valid host addresses. Which are these addresses? (Choose three.) A. B. C. D. Correct Answer: ACD QUESTION 35 Which type does a port become when Pass COMPTIAN10-006 exam it receives the best BPDU on a bridge? A. The designated port B. The backup port C. The alternate port D. The root port Correct Answer: D QUESTION 36 Which value can you modify to configure a specific interface as the preferred forwarding interface? A. The interface number B. The port priority C. The VLAN priorityD. The hello time Correct Answer: B QUESTION 37 Which statement about VLAN configuration is true? A. The switch must be in VTP server or transparent mode before you can configure a VLAN B. The switch must be in config-vlan 1Z0-434 exam mode before you configure an extended VLAN C. Dynamic inter-VLAN routing is supported on VLAN2 through VLAN 4064 D. A switch in VTP transparent mode save the VLAN databases to the running configuration only Correct Answer: A QUESTION 38 How Eigrp for ipv6 74-343 exam configuration done? (Choose two) A. uses process number B. neighbor configured directly C. configured driectly on interface D. configured globally interface E. have shutdown feature Correct Answer: CE QUESTION 39 interface fa0/0 ip address x.x.x.33 router bgp XXX 642-883 dumps neighbor x.x.x.x remote as x.x.x.x You need to advertise the network of Int fa0/0. A. x.x.x.32 mask B. x.x.x.32 C. x.x.x.32 mask D. x.x.x.33 mask Correct Answer: A QUESTION 40 Which two statements about LLDP are true?(choose two) A. It uses mandatory h12-211 pdf TLVs to discover the neighboring devices B. It functions at Layer 2 and Layer 3 C. It is a Cisco-proprietary technology D. It is implemented in accordance with the 802.11a specification E. It enables systems to learn about one another over the data-link layer Correct Answer: AE Free and Latest Microsoft 70-346 pdf

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